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Cognitive Shift and Negative Self Talk





One important executive function is cognitive shift. Cognitive shifting, as an executive function, refers to the ability to flexibly switch between different tasks, thoughts, or mental sets. It allows individuals to adapt their thinking and behavior according to changing demands or circumstances. This executive function enables us to transition smoothly from one activity to another, shift our attention between different aspects of a task, and switch between various cognitive strategies or perspectives as needed. In essence, cognitive shifting helps us navigate the complexities of our environment by facilitating mental flexibility and adaptability.


Students with ADHD are prone to negative self-talk and there are ways to help manage this.

Cognitive shifting can also involve deliberately changing ones perspective or thoughts to manage negative self-talk or intrusive thoughts. Identifying negative self-talk involves becoming aware of the thoughts and messages you tell yourself that are critical, self-deprecating, or unhelpful. Here are some ways to recognize negative self-talk:


  • Listen to Your Inner Dialogue: Pay attention to the thoughts that run through your mind, especially during moments of stress, self-doubt, or failure. Notice if your inner voice tends to be harsh, judgmental, or overly critical.

  • Recognize Patterns: Notice recurring themes or patterns in your self-talk. Do you frequently tell yourself you're not good enough, unworthy, or destined to fail? Identifying these patterns can help you become more aware of your negative thought patterns.

  • Monitor Emotional Reactions: Negative self-talk often triggers negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, anger, or shame. Pay attention to how your thoughts make you feel emotionally. Strong negative emotions may indicate the presence of negative self-talk.

  • Notice Physical Reactions: Negative self-talk can also manifest in physical sensations such as tension, tightness in the chest, or stomach discomfort. Becoming aware of these physical reactions can signal the presence of negative thoughts.

  • Seek Feedback from Others: Sometimes, negative self-talk can be so ingrained that it's challenging to recognize on your own. Trusted friends, family members, or a therapist can offer an outside perspective and help you identify negative patterns in your thinking.

By becoming more mindful and aware of your thoughts, emotions, and physical reactions, you can learn to identify and challenge negative self-talk, ultimately fostering a more positive and compassionate inner dialogue. Here are techniques to practice:



  • Identify Negative Thoughts: Become aware of the negative thoughts as they arise. Notice the patterns and triggers that lead to these thoughts.

  • Challenge Negative Thoughts: Question the validity of your negative thoughts. Ask yourself if there is evidence supporting these thoughts or if they are based on assumptions or irrational beliefs.

  • Replace Negative Thoughts: Once you've challenged negative thoughts, replace them with more positive or realistic alternatives. For example, if you catch yourself thinking "I'm not good enough," replace it with "I am capable and have strengths."

  • Practice Mindfulness: Pay attention to the present moment without judgment. Mindfulness can help you observe negative thoughts without becoming attached to them or allowing them to affect your mood.

  • Use Affirmations: Create positive affirmations to counteract negative self-talk. Repeat affirmations such as "I am worthy," "I am deserving of love," or "I am capable of handling challenges."

  • Refocus Your Attention: Shift your focus away from negative thoughts by engaging in activities that you enjoy or that require your full attention. This could be exercising, spending time with loved ones, or pursuing a hobby.

  • Practice Self-Compassion: Treat yourself with kindness and understanding, especially when facing negative thoughts. Remember that everyone experiences self-doubt and setbacks, and it's okay to be gentle with yourself.

  • Seek Professional Help: If negative self-thoughts persist despite your efforts, consider seeking support from a therapist or counselor. They can provide additional strategies and techniques tailored to your specific needs.

By practicing cognitive shifting techniques consistently, you can gradually reduce the impact of negative self-thoughts and cultivate a more positive and resilient mindset. Since individuals with ADHD may experience challenges with cognitive shifting, it is important to understand why. There are several reasons why this might occur:


  • Executive Functioning Deficits: ADHD is often associated with deficits in executive functions, which include abilities such as cognitive flexibility, working memory, and impulse control. Cognitive shifting requires flexibility in thinking and the ability to regulate emotions, both of which can be impaired in individuals with ADHD.

  • Hyperfocus and Rigid Thinking: While individuals with ADHD may struggle with maintaining attention on tasks that are not stimulating or interesting to them, they may also experience hyperfocus, where they become intensely focused on a particular task or thought pattern. This can lead to rigid thinking and difficulty shifting attention away from negative thoughts or patterns.

  • Impulsivity and Emotional Dysregulation: ADHD is often characterized by impulsivity and difficulties with emotional regulation. Negative self-talk can trigger emotional responses, and individuals with ADHD may struggle to regulate these emotions effectively, leading to a heightened and persistent focus on negative thoughts.

  • Low Frustration Tolerance: Individuals with ADHD may have a lower tolerance for frustration and setbacks, which can exacerbate negative self-talk. Difficulty shifting focus away from perceived failures or challenges can contribute to a cycle of negative thinking.

  • Working Memory Deficits: Working memory deficits are common in individuals with ADHD, making it challenging to hold onto positive or alternative thoughts while simultaneously combating negative self-talk.

  • Anxiety and/or Depression: ADHD often coexists with other mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression, which can exacerbate negative self-talk. These conditions can further impair cognitive shifting abilities and make it harder to challenge and replace negative thoughts.

While cognitive shifting strategies can still be beneficial for individuals with ADHD, they may require additional support and accommodations tailored to their specific needs and challenges. This might include strategies to improve executive functioning skills, mindfulness techniques to enhance emotional regulation, and therapeutic interventions focused on building self-esteem and resilience.


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